Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae


The Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae as opposed to its ancestor from the age of positivism (Monumenta Vaticana Hungariae), intends to publish monographs, studies, abstract-like and full editions of sources, repertories as well as bibliographies concerning the Hungarian historical research in the Vatican, without any further internal division according to genre.

It can be ordered at: cvh@btk.ppke.hu

CLASSIS I

vol. 1
Edgár Artner

EDGÁR ARTNER, “Hungary as Propugnaculum of Western Christianity”. Documents from the Vatican Secret Archives (ca 1214–1606) (CVH I/1), published by KORNÉL SZOVÁK–JÓZSEF TÖRÖK–PÉTER TUSOR, Budapest–Rome 2004. pp. ccvi + 336 + 11 suppl. (pictures, facsimiles, map) 

The manuscript contains faithful transliterations of 206 largely unpublished historical documents from the period between the 13th and 17th centuries found in a wide variety of the fonds of the Vatican Archives. A significant portion of the Latin and Italian documents consists of papal (letter) breves, which are supplemented by tithe collectors’ documents and papal nuncios’ reports and instructions.
 
The volume includes a Hungarian apparatus, a Bibliography (pp. 271–276), a detailed Index (pp. 276–304) in Latin, and a copious, annotated Summary and a Table of Contents in English (pp. 305–335). (For the Introduction of the volume, see the Excerptum.) 

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vol. 1 Excerptum
Péter Tusor

PÉTER TUSOR, Hungarian Historical Researches in the Vatican (CVH I/1exc.), Budapest–Rome 2004. pp. ccxxx + 7 suppl.  (pictures, facsimiles

The introduction of Vol. 1 published as an independent volume under an independent title reviews Hungarian researches in the archives of the Holy See from the end of the 16th century to this day. Its main result: the Hungarian State owing the Villa Fraknói is obliged to promote the Hungarian Historical Researches in the Vatican and establish the Hungarian Historical Institute in Rome.
 
It contains a list of copies and microfilms of the Roman and Vatican material in Hungary. The volume, published in Hungarian, includes a Bibliography (pp. clxxxix–cciv), an Index (pp. ccviii–ccxiv), and a copious, annotated Summary and a Table of Contents in English (pp. ccxv–ccxxix). 

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vol. 2
Ferenc Galla

FERENC GALLA, Franciscan Missionaries in Hungary: in the Kingdom and in Transylvania during the 17th and 18th Centuries (CVH I/2), Budapest–Rome 2005. pp. xx + 408 + 6 suppl. (pictures, map) 

This data-abundant mission-historical monograph, written in Hungarian, presents the converting activities in 17th century Upper Hungary and Transylvania of the different branches of the Franciscan order, especially of the Minorites and the Observants. The work, based on the reports and letters sent to Rome by missionaries mainly of Italian origin, brings into focus Hungary’s church history in the Early Modern Times.
 
Its utility for international research is ensured by an enormous apparatus based on materials from the Sacra Congregazione de Propaganda Fide and other Roman archives, an index of these sources (pp. 359–362), a Bibliography (pp. 363–367), a detailed Index (pp. 369–390), and an exhaustive, annotated Summary with chapter titles and a Table of Contents in English (pp. ccxv–ccxxix). 

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vol. 3
Péter Tusor

PÉTER TUSOR, Purpura Pannonica. The "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedents in the 17th Century (CVH I/3), Budapest–Rome 2005. pp. 334 + 17 suppl. (pictures, facsimiles, map)

This work written by the founding editor of the series presents through the example of Esztergom (Strigonium) the practice of the legal custom of crown-cardinals, that is, the evolution of regal influence upon the non-Italian members of the College of Cardinals, surveying the period between the 15th and 20th centuries.
 
The international utility of the volume, published in Hungarian, is ensured by the Italian and Latin source material from archives in Italy, Vienna, Brünn (Brno, CZ) etc., most of which is also quoted from verbatim and which are published in the Appendix (pp. 211–284), an index of the sources (pp. 285–290), a Bibliography (pp. 291–304), an Index (pp. 307–314), and an annotated Summary with chapter titles and a Table of Contents in English (pp. 315–334). 

 

Table of contents:
vol. 4

Gli archivi della Santa Sede e il regno d’Ungheria (secc. 15–20). In memoriam di Lajos Pásztor, a cura di GAETANO PLATANIA–MATTEO SANFILIPPO–PÉTER TUSOR, Budapest–Roma 2008. pp. xviii + 322 and 16 suppl. (4 maps, 12 pictures). With the University „Tuscia” of Viterbo.
"The Archives of the Holy See and the Kingdom of Hungary (15–20 centuries)". Studies in English, Italian and German. Some of the authors: Alexander Koller, Silvano Giordano, Andreas Gottsmann,Silvano Giordano, Christine Maria Grafinger, Elisabeth Zingerle, Kornél Szovák, Enikő Csukovits, Tamás Véghseő.

Table of contents:
vol. 5
Tamás Kruppa

Tamás Kruppa (ed.), Transilvania and the Papacy in the Age of the Báthorys. Documents II (1595–1613), Budapest–Rome–Szeged 2009, pp. xxxi + 303 and 3 suppl. (1 map, 2 pictures) ( = Data to the History of Intellectual Trends in Early Modern Hungary 38). Co-editor: The University of Szeged
 
Papers published mainly out of the Vatican Secret Archives. With Index and a large English Summary.
 

Table of contents:
vol. 6
Tamás Tóth

TAMÁS TÓTH, «Si nullus incipiat, nullus finiet». La rinascita della Chiesa d’Ungheria dopo la conquista turca nell’attività di Gábor Patachich e di Ádám Patachich, Arcivescovi di Kalocsa-Bács (17331784) (CVH I/6), Budapest–Roma 2011. pp. 374 + 9 suppl. (pictures, facsimiles, genealogical tree)

The volume – written in Italian – deals with the patronage, rebuilding and archiepiscopal activity of Gábor Patachich and Ádám Patachich, archbishops of Kalocsa-Bács, the alumni of the roman Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum, on that part of Hungary, that had been under Ottoman rule, with special regard to their Vatican connections.
 
It fills a gap also in the history of the Southern Great Hungarian Plain and it has a modern approach acquired during roman church history studies.

Table of contents:
vol. 7
Péter Tusor–Gábor Nemes (ed.)

PÉTER TUSOR–GÁBOR NEMES (ed.), Documents of Papal Consistories about the Lands of the Holy Crown of Hungary (1426 – 1605) (CVH I/7), Budapest – Rome 2011. (pp. lxviii + 304, with 2 pict., 1 map)

The volume publishes Hungaricums from the 15-16th centuries, that can be found in one of the most important and extensive fonds of the Archivio Segreto Vaticano, called Archivio Concistoriale. The Latin (and Italian) documents with Hungarian extracts give new data not only to the roman connections of the Hungarian church organization and state from the late middle ages and the early modern ages – among them from the period around the battle of Mohács –, but at the same time also bring closer the historical science and the interested reader to the getting to know of the contemporary appointment of prelates and to the creating of the prosopography of the having been formed catholic church elite. In many cases they give long-needed data to local and cultural history about the state and life of the episcopal sees.
 
The work is the result of a research project of several years’ standing in the Vatican archives. The detailed historical Introduction, extensive bibliographical and archival apparatus – the later draws for instance from Vienna collections – furthermore the Index, that is rich in data, and a large English Summary make the usage of the documents easier.

Table of contents:
vol. 8
Péter Tusor (ed.)

Hungary and the Holy See of Rome (Sources and Perspectives). Studies in Honour of Cardinal Erdő (CVH I/8), ed. by PÉTER TUSOR, Budapest–Roma 2012. pp. 466 + 3 suppl. (pictures, map)
 
This collection of studies that was published on the occasion of the 60th birthday of Cardinal Péter Erdő, gives a survey about the present state and directions of the Hungarian research in the Vatican Archives. It contains 16 studies that show some interesting chapters of the relationship between Hungary and the Holy See, focusing on the period between the 15th and 20th centuries. Some of them indicate the directions of the 'Impetus' Research Programme.
 
The articles follow each other in chronological order and rich publication of sources belongs to each of them. Its authors are outstanding historians and young talented representatives of this profession. Both those, who are interested in the diplomacy of the Holy See in modern age and in the historiography of the Vatican research, and those, who just keen on the 20th century history in general, can find their account in it. The volume is completed by practical Index of names, places and Summaries in English.

Table of contents:
vol. 9
† József Lukcsics, Tamás Fedeles, Péter Tusor et al (ed.)

Cameralia Documenta Pontificia de Regnis Sacrae Coronae Hungariae (1297–1536). I: Obligationes, Solutiones, edited by † JÓZSEF LUKCSICS–TAMÁS FEDELES–PÉTER TUSOR, cooperator GÁBOR NEMES, contributors András Koltai, Noémi Kalotai, Gergely Kiss, Zsanett Matus, Norbert C. Tóth, Ádám Bujdosó (CVH I/9), Budapest–Róma 2014. (pp. lxiv + 384 + 1 pict.)
 
The Hungarian medieval studies and history of science repays its old debt by these two volumes of the Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae series that publishes a source collection essential for the Hungarian medieval church history researches. The medieval Hungary-related material of the Camera Apostolica was explored by József Lukcsics, the right hand of Vilmos Fraknói, at the beginning of the 20th century in the Vatican Secret Archives. However, his collection had not been published because of the structural problems of the 20th century Hungarian researches in the Vatican.
The volumes – made in teamwork of 9 research fellows of 7 Hungarian research institutes – contain this uniquely valuable exploration prepared for publication appropriate to the today’s academic demands, through which this almost inexhaustibly rich material becomes available both for Hungarian and international research. The source collection of more than one and a half thousand items offers the opportunity among others for the comparative study of the economic potential of late medieval Hungarian ecclesiastical institutions and benefices, for compiling the Hungarian ecclesiastical archontology of the age and for the analysis of the relations of the Hungarian church and the Italian banking houses.
 
The usage of the volumes is aided by rich apparatus (notes, Bibliography, Index and List of Documents) and by an extensive annotated English Summary Study.
 
 

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vol. 10
† József Lukcsics, Péter Tusor, Tamás Fedeles et al. (ed.),

Cameralia Documenta Pontificia de Regnis Sacrae Coronae Hungariae (1297–1536). II: Divisiones, Provisiones, Visitationes, Quindennia, Rationes, Annatae, Obligationes particulares, Legationes, Varia, Taxae, edited by † JÓZSEF LUKCSICS–TAMÁS FEDELES–PÉTER TUSOR, cooperator GÁBOR NEMES, contributors András Koltai, Noémi Kalotai, Gergely Kiss, Zsanett Matus, Norbert C. Tóth, Ádám Bujdosó (CVH I/10), Budapest–Róma 2014. (pp. 488 + 1 map)
 
The Hungarian medieval studies and history of science repays its old debt by these two volumes of the Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae series that publishes a source collection essential for the Hungarian medieval church history researches. The medieval Hungary-related material of the Camera Apostolica was explored by József Lukcsics, the right hand of Vilmos Fraknói, at the beginning of the 20th century in the Vatican Secret Archives. However, his collection had not been published because of the structural problems of the 20th century Hungarian researches in the Vatican.
The volumes – made in teamwork of 9 research fellows of 7 Hungarian research institutes – contain this uniquely valuable exploration prepared for publication appropriate to the today’s academic demands, through which this almost inexhaustibly rich material becomes available both for Hungarian and international research. The source collection of more than one and a half thousand items offers the opportunity among others for the comparative study of the economic potential of late medieval Hungarian ecclesiastical institutions and benefices, for compiling the Hungarian ecclesiastical archontology of the age and for the analysis of the relations of the Hungarian church and the Italian banking houses.
 
The usage of the volumes is aided by rich apparatus (notes, BibliographyIndex and List of Documents) and by an extensive annotated English Summary Study.

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vol. 11
Ferenc Galla

FERENC GALLA, The Pauline Order’s Missions in Hungary in the 17–18th Centuries (CVH I/11), edited by  István Fazekas, Budapest–Rome 2015, pp. x+536 + 1 suppl. (map)
 
The monograph of Ferenc Galla written in Hungarian language processes the role of the Pauline Order in the propagation of the faith in Hungary in the 17th-18th century. The work is divided into three parts. In the first part the author deals with the inner reform of the Order, then with their joining in the missions of the propagation of the faith. The subject of the second part is the development of the Pauline missions that coincides with the Kuruc wars, the uprisings against the Habsburgs and the Great Turkish War in the last third of the 17th century. In the third part the missionary activity of the Order in the 18th century is presented. The monograph is based on a large number of sources revealed by decades of research in the Archives of the Sacra Congregazione de Propaganda Fide and in the Hungarian National Archives. Apart from its rich source base, the very sophisticated, still valid judgements of the author make this volume an indispensable reading for all of those who are interested in the church and social history of the early modern Hungary.
It was redacted with professional care by István Fazekas the senior researcher of our Research Institute in the frame of the 'Impetus' project. During this work the scholarly note apparatus was reconstructed partly through independent research.
The volume is dedicated to the memory of György István Tóth (1956–2005), the primary intellectual heir of Ferenc Galla and outstanding figure of the researches in the Vatican Archives concerning the history of missions, who died tragically young 10 years ago.
 
The usage of the monograph is facilitated by professional note apparatus, the enumeration of the used sources, Bibliography (pp. 465–474), Index (pp. 475–520), detailed English summary with notes and chapter headings, and table of contents (pp. 521–532 and 533–535).
 
Recension

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vol. 12
Gábor Nemes

Brevia Clementina. The Hungarian-related Breves of Pope Clement VII (1523–1526) (CVH I/12; A Győri Egyházmegyei Levéltár Kiadványai. Források, feldolgozások 23.), explored and published by GÁBOR NEMES, BudapestGyőr–Rome 2015. pp. xxii + 207 + 12 suppl. (pictures)
 
Since the opening of the fonds of the Vatican Secret Archives the medieval interest of the Hungarian historical research had turned mostly to the registries of supplications and of bulls and to the fonds of the Apostolic Chamber. The collection, exploration and publication of briefs – that type of documents that were created for the diplomatic correspondence and the confidential instructions in connection with the state administration and were issued by the secretaries of the pope – did not attract much interest.
In the Vatican Secret Archives the briefs that were issued before the organisational reform of the Council of Trent – contrary to the registries of supplications and bulls that are situated coherently – can be found scattered. Most of them are kept by the archaic part of the Vatican Archives, the Armadi. An other part of them, the documents of those who waited the answer for their supplication in form of brief are preserved in the archives of the Apostolic Datary (Brevia Lateranensia). Finally, the original letters of recommendation of the home returned legates of the Holy See are conserved in the Archivum Arcis.
The 150 documents of Pope Clement VII dated between 1523 and 1526 and published in this volume give an insight into one of the most interesting periods of the Hungarian history. We can get acquainted with the operation of the diplomacy of Hungary and the Holy See and how the pope tried to help Hungary being in extreme peril.
 
In accordance with the requirements of the series the usage of the volume is facilitated by rich apparatus (critical and subject notes, bibliography, index of places and names) and an English summary.

vol. 13
Péter Tusor

PÉTER TUSOR, Pázmány, the Jesuit Prelate. His Appointment as Primate of Hungary, 1615–1616 (A Micropolitical Study) (CVH I/13), Budapest–Rome 2016, 460 p. + 6 suppl. (pictures, facsimiles, map)
 
The subject of the monograph is the appointment of Péter Pázmány as the primate of Hungary. It analyzes the causes, aims and interrelations of one of the most influential macro-political facts of the early modern Hungarian history with micro-political approach – a technique that was elaborated for the age by Wolfgang Reinhard – and reconstructs its twisting events with critical sense. The question has attracted increasing attraction of the Hungarian historiography for three centuries starting out from György Pray. Yet only partial or false answers were found. The volume encompasses political, diplomatic and church-historical dimensions; what is more, it enriches also the art history by a new result. The author confidently uses the results of the Latin and Italian philology and – as auxiliary sciences – secular and canon law history.
 
Separate chapters deal with the protracted negotiations of the Habsburg and the papal diplomacy, the way of Pázmány leading temporarily out of the Jesuit order, the surrounding tensions inside the order, the accuses, the Somascan novice-candidacy, etc. Both his supporters and a fair number of his enemies are unfolded in the volume. Furthermore, we get an answer to the question whether his appointment was really problematic from the point of view of canon law or not, whether he fathered a child or not, whether he was heated by ambition and so wanted to be the primate of Hungary at all; who interested mostly in filling this position with him, and finally who became the main beneficiary of his appointment. The causes and driving force of the unique career turnaround are revealed analyzing the inner relations of the Court of Rome and Prague and the European high politics on the eve of the break out of the Thirty Years’ War.
The reader can dive into the special depths of historical cognition from the perspective of four centuries due to the fortunate source facilities and the wide exploring work covering Italian, Austrian, Czech and Hungarian archives. In these depths the interested are led primarily by the Roman Habsburg diplomatic and ecclesiastical informers whose role remained unknown until now.
 
The usage of the monograph is helped by broad professional note apparatus, appendix of sources (pp. 339–390), chronology (pp. 391–400), the list of the used sources and books (pp. 401–416), index (pp. 419–426), English summary and table of contents (pp. 429–456 and 457–459).

vol. 14
KRISZTINA TÓTH–PÉTER TUSOR

Krisztina Tóth–Péter Tusor, Inventarium Vaticanum I. The Archives of the Apostolic Nunciature in Budapest (1920–1939) (CVH I/14), Budapest–Rome 2016. lxii + 360 p. and 4 suppl. (pictures, map)
 
The volume that is a unique undertaking even on international level processes the material of the Apostolic Nunciature of Budapest from the diplomatic fonds of the Vatican between the two world wars in the form of a synoptic inventory. Its preparation connected to the strategically important Hungarian historical research in the Vatican, which has a long tradition and is characterized by the name of Vilmos Fraknói, replaces the work of the Hungarian Historical Institute in Rome that currently functionally does not exist.
 
The book gives a picture about the structure and content of an extremely diverse and rich, expressly Hungarian related material outlining the most important topics of the relations of the Holy See and Hungary in the examined period of time; between 1920 and 1939.  It contains such subjects that were determinative both from the point of view foreign and domestic policy. To mention only some examples: the effect of the Treaty of Trianon on the Church organisation, the role and importance of Catholicism in preserving Hungarian culture on the taken away territories, the royal right of patronage, the Catholic renaissance, monumental Catholic celebrations, etc. Besides, the volume provides valuable additions to the history of the single dioceses, religious orders and institutes and thecurriculum of certain Ecclesiastical and laypersons.
On the one hand, the importance of the inventory is given by the fact, that it facilitates the work of the researchers arriving at the Vatican Secret Archives, as this way they can obtain information about the content of the bustae in advance, and thus they can carry out targeted research. On the other hand, it contributes to the understanding and processing of the relations of the Holy See and Hungary and the contemporary role of the papal Central-European diplomacy with due subtlety both on national and international level. Its continuation, the Inventarium Vaticanum II, which is in preparation, will contain the abundant Hungarian related material of the nunciatures of Prague, Bucharest and Beograd and the Congregazione per gli Affari Ecclesiastici Straordinari.
 
The volume is completed by a detailed introduction, which discusses the history of the nunciature, the so far processing of the Hungarian related fonds opened in 2006 and also the methodology of the preparation of the inventory, contemporary photos, a map, a thorough register of places and names compiled by György Sági and a summarizing study in English.

vol. 15
PÉTER TUSOR–KORNÉL SZOVÁK–TAMÁS FEDELES

Hungary and the Holy See of Rome II. Hungarian Historical Researches of the 21th Century in the Vatican (CVH I/15), ed. by Péter Tusor–Kornél Szovák–Tamás Fedeles, Budapest–Rome 2017. pp. 436 + 11 suppl. (7 pictures printed on coated paper, 4 maps)

The volume gives a scientific plan to the forthcoming five years of the HAS-PPCU Vilmos Fraknói Vatican Historical Research Group that focuses on the Hungarian historical research in the Vatican and was established in 2017 as an organic continuation of the Impetus research group. It contains the lectures-turned-studies of the “Hungarian Historical Researches of the 21th Century in the Vatican” symposium of the VIIIth International Hungarology Congress organised by the Impetus research group on the 23rd August 2016.

The chronological and thematic order of the volume’s writings clearly outlines the planned focus and directions of the research group’s researches. The first five studies examine late medieval subject. Ágnes Maléth analyses the diplomatic relations between Charles I and the papal court in the light of sources from the Vatican Archives. Tamás Fedeles provides input to the work of the papal tax collectors by the presentation of the operation of one of them: Péter, son of István, whose person is well-known both for the Hungarian and the Polish research. Kornél Szovák examines how the Turkish question appeared in the supplications handed in the Roman Curia in the fifteenth century. Gábor Nemes processed the late medieval presence of laics and priests from the diocese of Győr in Rome leaning on various curial types of sources. Finally, the study of Bálint Lakatos provides insight into the ceremonial hierarchy of the papal court, in which he examines the place of Hungary.

The focus of the next six studies is the Early Modern Age. Viktor Kanász outlines his plan to reveal the Vatican sources concerning the curial process of György Fráter’s murder, with which he desires to settle the long-standing debt of the Hungarian historiography. Similarly, Péter Tusor drafts the details of his project about the methodical exploitation of the verbals of the seventeenth century canonical examinations. Tamás Tóth deals with this subject for the eighteenth century. Tamás Kruppa analyses the relations of politics and religion in the early seventeenth century on the basis of the works and correspondence of the Jesuit Giovanni Argenti. Béla Vilmos Mihalik also presents a diplomatic subject: the connections of the Holy See and the Court of Vienna at the end of the 17th century, at the time of the Roman legation of Count Georg Adam von Martinitz. Gábor Kisvarga outlines the plan to publish the monograph of Ferenc Galla, which survived in a manuscript, on the missions in the territory under Turkish rule.

The last four studies delineate the third main direction of the investigations of the research group; the Hungarian historical researches in the Vatican about the twentieth century. Krisztina Tóth presents the point of view of the Holy See about the Hungarian royal right of patronage at the turn of the 1920s through the protocols of the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Máté Gárdonyi reveals the documentary value of the renewed ad limina reports submitted already not to the Congregation of Council, but to the Consistorial Congregation. Tamás Véghseő provides interesting additions to the problems of the consolidation of the Hungarian Greek Catholics after the Treaty of Trianon in his source publication. Ultimately, Lilla Fehér unfolds a chapter of the history of the emigration in Rome after 1945: the attempt to establish the Saint Stephen Academy.

The volume is supplemented by rich source material, charts and maps published at the singular studies, pictures, summaries in English and an index.

CLASSIS II

tom. 1
Gabriella Erdélyi (ed.)

GABRIELLA ERDÉLYI (ed.), The Register of a Convent Controversy (1517–1518). Pope Leo X, Cardinal Bakócz, the Augustinians and the observant Franciscans in contest (CVH II/1), Budapest–Rome 2006. pp. ix–lxxxvii + 230 + 12 suppl. (pictures, facsimiles, maps)
 
In this volume of the series Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae dedicated to publish sources and monographs based on documents kept in Italian archives we have on our hands a unique source from the Vatican Apostolic Library. In 1518, there was a dispute for the possession of a convent in Western Hungary between two mendicant orders. The case was investigated upon papal order, in the course of which dozens of witnesses were heard. As the patron of the convent, Thomas Bakócz cardinal-legate claimed, the convent stood in a very bad condition and provided no liturgical services due to the negligent and sinful life of the friars: they frequented taverns, where they behaved as violent drunkards, and kept lovers, whom they entertained in the convent. The meticulously recorded depositions of local inhabitants contain many interesting stories and open, therefore, a window upon the everyday life of a market town and its neighbourhood.
 
The Introduction (ix–lxxxvii) reflects upon the possible uses of the source and the interpretation of this convent controversy from multiple viewpoints. With respect to the general historiographical significance of the Latin source, the volume has been published entirely in English. Its utility is ensured by a Bibliography (pp. 201–208) and an Index (pp. 211–224) including a subject index.

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tom. 2
Tamás Véghseő

TAMÁS VÉGHSEŐ, "Catholice reformare". Ágoston Benkovich O.S.P.P.E., missionario apostolico, vescovo di Várad (1631-1702), CVH II/2, Budapest–Roma 2007. pp. 430 + 2 suppl. (maps)
 
Il volume presenta i temi più importanti della riforma cattolica nell’Ungheria – la riforma della formazione sacerdotale e della vita consacrata, il fenomeno delle missioni interne, la nascita della chiesa cattolica di rito bizantino, la concezione tridentina del ministero episcopale – tramite l’analisi della vita di un personaggio ecclesiastico, Ágoston Benkovich, missionario apostolico, priore generale dell’Ordine di San Paolo Primo Eremita e vescovo di Várad. Dopo gli studi romani (nel Collegio Germanico ed Ungarico) Benkovich partecipò attivamente per più di vent’anni nelle missioni dei paolini. Poiché conosceva il ruteno, lavoro prima di tutto nelle regioni nord-orientali del Regno d’Ungheria tra i cattolici di rito bizantino che verso la metà del secolo 17 accettarono l’unione con la Chiesa cattolica. Sia da semplice missionario, sia da priore generale Benkovich fu sostenitore delle riforme interne dell’Ordine. Dopo la sua nomina episcopale per la sede di Várad diresse la ricostruzione della diocesi nello spirito della riforma tridentina.
 
Nell’Appendice (319–384) vengono riportate fonti conservate in archivi romani (Archivio Secreto Vaticano, Archivio Storico della Congregazione per l’Evangelizzazione dei Popoli, Archivio del Collegio Germanico ed Ungarico) e ungheresi (Sala dei Manoscritti della Biblioteca dell’Università Loránd Eötvös di Budapest e Archivio Nazionale Ungherese), dall’altra parte troviamo in tre tabelle l’elenco degli ex-alunni, provenienti dal Regno d’Ungheria, del Collegio Germanico ed Ungarico nominati vescovi diocesani. L’uso del volume viene facilitato da due cartine, bibliografia, indice dei nomi e concordanza dei nomi di località.

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tom. 3
Ferenc Galla

FERENC GALLA, Pontifical provisions, faculties and commissions in Transylvania, Habsburg and Ottoman Hungary (15501711) (CVH II/3), edited by PÉTER TUSOR–KRISZTINA TÓTH, Budapest–Rome 2010. pp. xxii + 202 +1 suppl. (1 picture)

 
This volume is already the second one of the Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae series, that publishes a work of the outstanding 20th century Hungarian church historian, Ferenc Galla.
 
In this book he reveals the connections between Rome and the three-parts-divided Hungary (Transylvania, Habsburg and Ottoman Hungary) between 1550 and 1711 with the help of primary sources from the Vatican Archives, the extracts of which he gives in Hungarian, in Latin or in some cases in Italian, in timeorder. At the end of each abstract there is – usually abundant – collection of references of archive sources regarding the given case, from which the connection points of issues can be seen and what can be the basis of further research. The use and value of the volume for the research (scientific life) is given by the fact, that it contains many so far unpublished sources, pontifical provisions, faculties and commissions, mainly from the territory of Ottoman Hungary.
 
An Index of names and places makes the orientation in the book easy (pp. 173–196). Besides it contains also a Summary and Table of Contents in English (pp. 197–201).

 

Table of contents:
tom. 4
Péter Tusor

PÉTER TUSOR, The Papal Consistories and Hungary in the 15th16th centuries, To the history of the Hungarian Royal Patronage and Supremacy (CVH II/4), Budapest–Rome, 2012. (pp. 186 + map and facsimiles)
 
The volume that was written in English language presents the relationship of the Apostolic See and the Hungarian Kingdom in the 15–16th century in the light of the documents of the consistory, the most important cultural institute of the age. In the examined period of time the most significant advisory and decision making body of the pope was the consistory. A good portion of its documents were preserved in the Vatican Secret Archives (Archivio Segreto Vaticano).
 
The first part of the book enumerates the history of the consistory and its complex operation, the filling of the consistorial benefices, the not easy process of the canonical examination of bishop-nominees, the course of business of the consistory and the subsequent issue of bulls. The second part of the work as the title of the volume also shows deals with the relations of the consistory and Hungary in the 15–16th century. It can be read in it about the presence of the Hungarian affairs on the agenda of the consistories and the filling of Hungarian ecclesiastical benefices. Besides it devotes many pages to the history of the ecclesiastical benefices before the battle of Mohács and in connection with it to the history of the Hungarian royal patronage and supremacy, furthermore, to the nature of the changes of the relations of Rome and the Hungarian church after the Battle of Mohács. All these are completed by rich note apparatus of Hungarian and foreign literature.
 
The content is demonstrated well by the twenty-one original Latin sources with English abstracts, the maps of the same good quality as the former volumes, and the six black and white photos that illustrate the sources. In the volume the work of the researchers is aided by an Index and a Hungarian Resume at the end of it.

Table of contents:
tom. 5
Tamás Kruppa

The cross, the eagle and the dragon's tooth. Plans for an anti-Ottoman league and battles against the Ottomans in the Báthory era (1578–1597) (CVH II/5), Budapest–Rome 2014. pp. 516 + two plates (picture, map)
 
The book draws on archival sources held in Italy (mainly in the Vatican and Venice) and Vienna as well as already published source material, puts them in the spotlight and lets them speak about a crucial period in the history of Hungary and Transylvania, which has been largely neglected in Hungarian historiography.
In accord with the nature of the sources, it discusses its main subject, the attempts to create an anti-Ottoman alliance, within the framework of the dynamics of international diplomacy. The reign of Stephen Báthory, Prince of Transylvania and King of Poland, as well as that of his successor, Sigismund Báthory, Prince of Transylvania, coincided with the intensification of efforts to expel the Ottomans from Hungary and Europe as well as with the outbreak of the Fifteen Years' War, during which the attention of the Holy See was directed to the region for an unprecedentedly long time.
 
The book ends with an Epilogue that not only provides a summary, but also makes an attempt to draw the moral and to propose novel viewpoints to be taken into consideration in further research. The book includes ample quotations from contemporary sources so that the reader can better understand the mentality of these characters. There is an English summary and a table of contents at the end of the book.

tom. 6
Péter Tusor

Péter Pázmány’s Process of Enquiry. His Family, Catholicisation, Missions. (With the Papers of the Pázmány–Tholdy Archives) (CVH II/6), revealed, translated and with accompanying study and documents edited by Péter Tusor, Budapest–Rome 2017. pp. 462. + 3 suppl. (2 pictures, 1 map) Digital supplements: http://institutumfraknoi.hu/repositorium/frascati

The volume is decisively of biographical, prosopographical and genealogical nature. The source that serves as its basis combines traditional historical genres, occasionally with microphilological thoroughness. By being connected with the illustrious historical discourse of the Pázmány-research it presents how and in what measure the processus informativus, this unique and important sequential type of source of the Vatican, can be exploited and give an excess to the existing researches and Hungarian sources. Nonetheless, the perspectives that the Italian private archives can offer in order to make Hungarian history better known (and understood) are presented.

The possibility of the further scientific exploitation is primarily connected to the Pázmány-research, as well. The specified and modified data of certain careers and the family circumstances can be reflected in his literary work. It remains the task of the history of literature to re-read the works of Pázmány – following the method of Miklós Őry – and to find bases along newer biographical results, or even to raise objections. The same is held to our observations concerning his literary work.

The analysis of the archive of the Pázmány–Tholdy family, revealed through research, their documents’ richness in data and the nature of the historian’s narrative, which relies upon those data and radically diverges from the text of the verbal-analysis proves that the process and the family archive practically “talk at cross purposes”. The one does not cover the lack of the other. Moreover, they complement each other. The famous phrase of László Fejérpataky: “The history of Hungary cannot be written without the knowledge of the archives of Italy and mainly the Vatican”, is current, however, not primarily due to the loss of data in Hungary, since that is irrecoverable. The phrase is relevant, because the archives of Italy (could) preserve such data for us that can be unreachable in Hungary even under ideal source conditions.

The volume is of interest of both the professional and wider circle of readers due to the revealment of primary sources and the conducted basic research. The testimony of the witnesses (for example of such well-known persons that Bálint Lépes and Lőrinc Ferenczffy) of September 1616 about Pázmány and his career to the archbishopric chair can be read in the volume also in Hungarian translation. Their words reveal the family of Pázmány, his catholicisation, his studies in Kolozsvár and his missionary and polemical activity. In the presentation of Pázmány’s role appears the world of transition from Reformation to Counter Reformation from a so far unknown aspect. The documents of the newly revealed Pázmány-Tholdy family archives lead us to the ambiance of Várad of the 1570s and 1580s. The everyday life of the nobles of this country of Calvinist majority, that had been since some decades already Protestant, comes alive due to the documents of the Protestant Pázmánys and the Catholic Tholdys. That milieu, in which Pázmány lived as a child and returned occasionally as a student of Kolozsvár before at the age of 18 he left forever his fatherland. The ancestors of the Pázmánys, the lawsuits between members of the family, the masterfulness and gaining of estates of the ambitious father, Miklós, and the financial conditions of the family are also outlined. In connection with the investigation of a murder case the decaying estate and the inhabitants of Panasz, who were mostly the serfs of the Pázmánys, evoke the world of the village. The most interesting Hungarian language sources can be found in the Appendix in their full length. In addition to the genealogical, biographical and family history data they prove us also that the religious movements of the mid-16th century left the late-medieval, humanist-legal culture of Várad fundamentally untouched and they did not bring any basic change in the family strategies motivated by the possibilities of social rise.